What are the key points for square stone construction and paving? (1)

The square in the garden roughly has two functions, one is to collect and distribute people, and the other is to engage in activities and rest. Places for collecting and distributing pedestrian flow are mostly located inside and outside the entrance or in front of large garden buildings, as well as at the intersection of main and secondary roads, and sometimes there are squares within a certain area. The resting areas for activities include forest courts, waterside lawns, mountain gazebos, and various resting and activity areas enclosed by pavilions, corridors, and flower racks.

1、 General construction points for square paving

1. Understand the construction drawings, comprehensively consider the handover relationship between the horizontal and vertical surfaces, optimize specifications, and clarify the layout plan;

2. It is strictly prohibited to use small pieces of materials and natural surface stones for wave compaction;

3. Strictly carry out material acceptance to avoid paving joints, unevenness, and other issues caused by material size specifications;

4. The entire square paving uses the same control points and control lines from start to finish;

5. The drainage slope should be greater than 1%. When the square span is greater than 20m, hidden drainage ditches, and expansion joints should be set up in the structural layer;

6. Strictly control the water-cement ratio, with a cement-sand ratio of 1:3.5 for densely populated squares and 1:2.5 for squares with traffic requirements to ensure firm adhesion. The base layer must be clean and wet with cement oil, and the back of the stone should be brushed with plain cement slurry to ensure firm adhesion between the base layer and the bonding layer, as well as between the bonding layer and the surface layer;

7. Ensure that the operators follow the line to lay and check whether the gaps are straight at any time after laying each line. Use a level and ruler to level the gaps to prevent uneven height and width of the joints;

8. After laying, use the same color of cement to point the joints, and it is prohibited to use dry cement mortar or cement powder to sweep the joints.

2、 Key points for the construction of 8 types of squares

Circular square

1. The layout should be arranged outward from the center of the circle. The square is an important node, and curved plates should be used as much as possible to avoid small pieces of closing stones;

2. Take the center of the circle as the control point, and the center to the edge of the wave as the control line;

3. The laying sequence and drainage should flow outward from the center of the circle. Before pressing the outer circle in Figure 1, plastic film should be used to protect the wave to avoid pollution;

4. Reasonably use specification plates, trapezoidal plates, and curved plates.

Sinking circular square

1. The layout should be arranged outward from the center of the circle, paying attention to each intersection of the horizontal and vertical surfaces;

2. Using the center of the circle as the control point; The steps, tree pools, and scenic walls within the site should maintain a concentric circle relationship, with full and smooth arcs;

3. A drainage system should be set up inside the tree pond, and waterproof treatment should be done on the inner and outer sides to avoid water accumulation and alkalization;

4. A sunken square should be equipped with decorative drainage ditches at the junction of the square’s perimeter and greenery;

5. Water-stable and uniform paving, compaction and leveling, uniform thickness of structural layers, and settlement expansion joints should be set when the span is greater than 20m.

Stacked curved square

1. Using a total station or GPS to set out points, each level of grass platform arc should be set out at a distance of 3-4m, with steel bars fixed and PVC pipes connected in sequence;

2. The inner side of the retaining wall on the platform needs to be waterproof, and a drainage blind pipe should be installed before the platform. The diameter and density of the pipe depend on the local water volume and platform area;

3. The top stone of the platform is aligned with the facade, and the gaps between the top stones of different levels of the platform are in a straight line pointing towards the center of the circle;

4. Attention should be paid to water safety protection for hydrophilic walkways.

Huiwen Square

1. Review the drawings, and cut materials, and ensure that the corners are uniformly “L” shaped or “mouth” shaped plates. The size of the large surface paving and the size of the grain stone should have a corresponding proportional relationship;

2. From top to bottom, pay attention to the relationship between the wall and the ground, and first do the decoration of the porch and railing to prevent problems such as hanging feet;

3. Pay attention to the correspondence between the position of the railing base and the position of the wave.

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