What are the factors that cause stone corrosion and damage? (1)

Stone is currently one of the relatively high-end materials in the field of decoration. Its pure natural texture, combined with various surface treatment effects, can elevate the decoration effect of indoor and outdoor decoration by several levels. At the same time, compared to other decorative materials that are difficult to clean when stained or easily crushed when hit by heavy objects, stone is obviously much more solid. It not only has a hard structure that can resist heavy object impact but also has a smooth surface that can resist the invasion of ordinary dirt. It can be said that it is a highly cost-effective decoration material.

But this does not mean that the stone is flawless. In the practical application of stone, there are still many destructive factors that can cause erosion in the environment. So, don’t think that as long as you choose stone as the decoration material, you can become a shopkeeper. To extend its service life as much as possible, we still need to have a simple understanding of the destructive factors that affect the lifespan of stone materials and take corresponding care of them.

01. Water

In the eyes of the public, water is the source of life, but for stone people, to some extent, water is the true “source of all evil”. Due to water being the most difficult substance to eliminate in daily life, various stone products are relatively susceptible to water erosion in many details, resulting in various problems. The root cause of common phenomena is often water.

The water will transport the chemical properties and salts of oxidized or reduced minerals to the interior of the stone, and will also bring various modern industrial pollutants into it, thus accelerating the dissolution and destruction of the stone, or causing the loss of calcium carbonate and other components to make the stone lose luster, or making the interior of the stone form gel to produce water spots, or causing the internal calcium components to be brought to the surface of the stone to form whitening phenomenon Or make the iron in the stone rust, forming rust spots.

On the other hand, rainwater, condensation, and groundwater enter the stone through micropores. As the temperature changes, the volume of the stone will repeatedly shrink or expand, and its stress can cause cracking and damage to the stone. Especially for outdoor stones that have been in a humid environment for a long time and have a large temperature difference between day and night, water repeatedly and unevenly absorbs, permeates, dissolves, and continuously contracts and expands, making it easy to crack the rock. In addition, in areas such as the north, the weather is relatively cold.

When the pores of the stone absorb enough water, once the temperature drops below 0 ℃, the water in the stone begins to freeze and the volume expands. When the expansion force of ice exceeds the structural force of stone, stone will be damaged, which is the phenomenon of frost damage. It is also worth noting that water is an indispensable condition for the growth of organisms such as microorganisms. The growth of microorganisms can also cause significant damage to stone materials.

02. Salt crystallization

Natural stone naturally forms salt crystals during its natural formation process. After being mined and processed by humans, the content of salt crystals may increase due to the infiltration of cement, mortar, dust, moisture, seawater, and contaminated liquids into micropores. On the one hand, during the crystallization process of salt, a great deal of pressure is generated. If the temperature of the stone rises significantly, the salt will cause volume expansion. These situations may lead to internal damage to the stone material.

In general usage scenarios, the harm of salt crystals to stone is often driven by the wind. The salt crystals inside the stone dissolve in water and diffuse to the surface. Wind accelerates water evaporation, thereby promoting salt accumulation and crystal formation. Repeated salt dissolution and crystallization can cause the surface of stone micropores to fall off in a powder or scale-like manner. If washed away by rainwater, after long-term use, it is easy to form deep grooves on the stone surface, which affects the aesthetic effect.

In addition, some decorative stones may exhibit a phenomenon of constant moisture on the surface, which is often caused by the moisture absorption effect of salt.

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