We all know that every piece of precious marble comes from the stone mine in nature, so how do these marbles come out of the mine? This article gives them a brief overview of the mining business.
● Introduction to Kyrgyz mining
One, stone mining type
The types of stone mines are open-pit mining and underground mining. Open-pit mining is divided into hillside open-pit mining, depression open-pit mining, and well mining. Underground mining is divided into cave mining and roadway mining.
1. Open-pit mining:
A stone mine in which the overburden and weathering layer on the surface of the stone ore body must be peeled off before mining. The open ditch is dug from the ground, and mining face is created, and the block is mined from the working face. According to the terrain conditions of the deposit buried, located above the lowest level of the surface of the stope called hillside open-pit mining; Located below the lowest level of the surface of the stope is called sag open-pit mining.
1) Slope open-pit mining:
Basically according to the principle of top-down mining sequence
2) Sag open-pit mining:
Basically according to the principle of top-down mining sequence
3) Well mining:
It is a special case of sag strip mining. With the continuous deepening of stone mining operations, many stone mines have evolved from hillside open-pit type to depression open-pit type, and finally to good mining. The depth of many foreign Wells is over 50 meters, or even 80 meters or more.
2. Underground mining:
The stone mine that needs to be mined from the surface to reach the orebody is divided into the roadway (cave type) mining and cave (tunnel type) mining.
1) Cave type:
Slope open-pit mines with steep mountain shape, a large amount of stripping, and extremely dangerous mining operations, such as some marble mines in Baoxing County, Sichuan province; With the increase of mining depth, the concave open-pit mine with inclined orebodies, such as the white marble mine in Fangshan, Beijing, needs to peel off a very thick overburden. With the increase of mining depth, the mining of some good-type marble mines will not be able to continue. Adopting the cave mining method will make the mining operation more practical.
The main mining process is similar to the open-pit mining with the difference that before the formal mining, a rectangular channel development process is added to develop a new free face on the ore body with only one free face.
2) Shaft type:
Using the roadway leftover from other engineering, transportation facilities, or mining projects, through a stone mine dug inside the roadway.
Two. Elements of the open-pit stope
1. Step: When open-pit mining stone, the orebody is usually divided into horizontal layers of a certain thickness and mined layer by layer from top to bottom. When two or more horizontal layers are mined at the same time, a certain lead distance should be maintained between the upper and lower layers. In the process of mining and at the end of mining, it forms steps in space. These steps are called steps. The step is the basic element of stone open-pit stope, and it is also the unit body for independent block mining.
2. Working platform: the horizontal part of each step
3. Safety platform: the stope boundary is reserved to ensure the safety of the lower production platform and the stability of the side.
4. Cleaning platform: a cleaning platform is set up every 2-3 safety platforms
5. Transport channel: transport road between the ground and each level
● The mining process is divided into seven processes
One. A stripping
(1) Stripping scope: all parts in the mining scope that do not meet the processing and use requirements;
(2) External stripping: before the mining of the deposit, the part of the surface and surrounding of the minable body that does not meet the processing and use requirements is peeled off to expose the part available for mining;
(3) Internal stripping: the stripping of the parts that cannot become blocks due to the existence of joints, fissures, and dykes inside the orebody.
(4) Stripping ratio: the ratio of the amount of stripped earth and stone to the volume of the mined block.
(5) Block rate: the ratio of the volume of the extracted block to the volume of the raw ore within a certain mining range is called the block rate.
2, basic principles: stripping at the same time, stripping first
3. Requirements: do not affect the integrity and clumpiness of the orebody
Two. separation — the main process of stone mining
1, concept: separated from the ore body of several times the volume of the block.
(1) Do not damage ore bodies and ores — take protective measures
(2) the size of the stripped stone shall be equal to the integral multiple of the size of the block plus the processing amount required for the segmentation of the block.
(3) According to the natural conditions of the orebody, make full use of natural fractures and bedding.
(4) According to the technical performance of the mining equipment, give full play to the role of the equipment, improve efficiency and reduce cost.
The width of the strip block stone is generally the height of the mining step, and the length is a part of the mining step
Three. top over – down the stone
1. Purpose: To facilitate the segmentation into blocks according to the required specifications.
2, method: traction winch, loader, capstone machine, water pressure bag, air pressure bag.
3. Key points: the use of protective measures to prevent the stone from breaking when it falls over.
4. New technology of pneumatic pushing bag:
The pneumatic pushing bag is inserted into the 12mm saw joint formed by the beaded rope sawing, and the compressed air is used to inflate it. The bag body is expanded to generate dozens of tons of thrust, and the stone is pushed to shift or turn over by the lever principle so that the stone is disassembled in the subsequent process and the block is produced. The bag body is made of high-strength polymer rubber material and can be used repeatedly.
Division of four,
The process of dividing the stripped stone into raw blocks or blocks according to the required block specifications on the overturned strip stone. Block: a cuboid or cube with certain specifications without cracks, can meet the requirements of plate processing block; Raw block: the shape meets the requirements of the block specification, but the surface is not smooth, with a positive error of more than 3. The blocking stone to be shaped is a measured block: the actual measured volume of the block after inspection. Is the actual effective volume of block material after deducting the excess volume formed by dimensional deviation.
Five, the plastic
To reduce the extra workload in lifting, transportation, and processing and reduce the cost, the rough material will be trimmed to meet the standard requirements.
2. According to the shaping method, the block is divided into two categories:
A. Sawface block: all the six faces are shaped by sawing.
B. Split block: a block with one or more sides shaped by cutting
3, plastic equipment:
Large-diameter disc saw, chain arm molding machine, diamond band saw molding machine, beaded saw molding.
Six. Hoisting and transportation
1. Mast-type crane (mast-hoist)
2. Automobile (wheeled) crane
3. Crawler crane
4. Front-end loader:
5, crawler excavator:
6, gantry crane
7. Cable crane
8. Traction winch
Seven, slag discharge
Before the construction of a stone mine, it is necessary to consider the construction of a muck yard with sufficient capacity, which is a necessary preparation for continued production and safe production. Pay attention to the protection of resources, environmental protection, comprehensive utilization, improve efficiency. Following the requirements of decorative stone mines, the comprehensive recovery rate of ore shall not be lower than 50%.
Well, this article is written here, there are a lot of shortcomings, look forward to you to send me an email to criticize email@example.com.