To make a fine stone carving, material selection is very important. A skillful woman cannot make bricks without rice. Only when she has materials can she embody the characteristics of carving art. Different materials need different carving techniques to match, and stone carvings of different materials also have different application ranges. Therefore, the selection of stone carving materials is very important. In this article, let’s talk about stone carving materials.
● The stone materials of stone carving technology in China include granite, white marble, lapis lazuli, talc, colored stone, pebble, etc.
Granite is a kind of tectonic rock formed after lava rises to the surface of the earth’s crust under certain pressure and slowly cools and solidifies. Granite belongs to magmatic rock, which is composed of feldspar, quartz, and mica. The rock is hard and dense. Granite is hard and not easy to be weathered. It is suitable for platform foundation, step stone, ground, etc., but the granite grain is rough and should not be carefully carved.
White marble is a kind of white fine-grained marble. It is loved by the world because it is white and crystal, quiet and generous, and has been applied to stone carving. In the Ming and Qing Dynasties, a large number of stone carvings of palace buildings, such as ornamental columns, stone lions, were carved with white marble. White marble is divided into water white, dry white, snow-white, and blue-white due to different textures. White marble is white and crystal, with a soft texture and fine stone grain, which is suitable for carving.
Blue and white stone is hard, delicate, and not easy to be weathered. It is suitable for palace buildings and stonework with carving. There are many kinds of Green white stone, including bluestone, white stone, etc.
Talc is a common silicate mineral, which is formed by hydrothermal alteration of magnesium-rich minerals. Talc is shiny and its tentacles are greasy. The shape of the talc is massive, leaf-like, fibrous, or radial, and the color is white and gray-white. Talc is soft and suitable for carving.
When selecting stones, pay attention to the common defects of stones. When the selected stone has problems such as unsmooth texture, stains, red and white lines, stone defects, and stone iron, it should be handled in time, and the cracked and hidden residual stone should not be selected.
● Stone determines the material and basic original form of stone carving. Finally, the quality of stone carving works is determined by the production technology of stone carving and the golden stone skills of stone carving artists.
Round carving is a plastic art in three-dimensional space of height, width, and depth, that is, three-dimensional carving. Round carving requires the processing of each side of the stone. The carving process is mainly based on hollowing out techniques and fine ax chopping and finally can enjoy the three-dimensional modeling art from multiple angles.
The general steps of round carving are as follows: roughing the stone, taking out the blank first, and removing the excess part; Then, according to the proportion of the parts of the carved image designed by the drawings and other realistic designs, the general outline of the round carving is outlined; After that, start making, and chisel the shape with a chisel along the contour line; Finally, draw detailed lines based on the original beating, and trim the stone carving products with grinding head, chopping ax, flat son, etc.
Relief art is between sculpture and painting, which belongs to semi-vertical sculpture. Relief is to carve on the stone surface to make the stone have a three-dimensional feeling and make the image convex on the stone surface. Relief can be divided into shallow relief and high relief. Bas relief is a single-level statue, and the carving situation is relatively single; High relief is a multi-level statue, the content is relatively complex, and more openwork techniques are used. Relief is used for wall decoration of buildings, as well as dragon columns, drums, and Royal Roads of temples. It is widely used in stone carvings.
Deep carving, also known as line carving, imitates the traditional strokes of Chinese painting, such as freehand brushwork, overlap, line modeling, scattered perspective, and so on, carves lines of different thickness and depth on the polished stone surface, and skillfully uses shadows to reflect the three-dimensional feeling of the pattern. The products made by this stone carving technique are mostly used for the surface decoration of the outer wall of buildings, with strong artistry. Among them, cliff stone carvings, steles, and couplets are the most.
Carving is a very important form of sculpture, also known as hollow carving. Carving often hollows out the part of the stone that can not express the object image, and then sculpture. This method of sculpture evolved from the round sculpture. It is very common in stone carving in the south. The most famous is the stone dragon carving with beads.
Transparent carving is also called transparent carving. During the carving process, the protruding image part is retained, and the back part is partially hollowed out, and some parts need to be hollowed out. Openwork has a strong sense of hierarchy. Each program should be carried out in layers and operated repeatedly, so openwork products are more detailed and fine.
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