In recent years, more and more stone materials are used in various architectural decoration projects, such as villas, hotels, clubs, office buildings, business centers, and so on. Some of the decoration effects and requirements have been designed by the professional design department in the capital construction design of the project, and some are decorated only after the completion of the civil engineering part, and there is no specific decoration design drawing.
Especially for the stone part, since there is no unified national standard such as glass curtain wall and aluminum alloy, and the specific requirements of each customer vary greatly, engineers and technicians with both stone professional knowledge and processing technology and understanding of civil construction are required to conduct surveying and mapping according to the on-site civil construction facilities and according to the customer’s requirements and assumptions, Draw engineering drawings.
This series of operation processes can not only meet the processing technology of stone itself but also meet the decorative effect required by customers. This is the stone setting out the technology. In this article, let’s talk about the experience of stone setting out!
Basic requirements for setting out personnel
As an engineer and technician in stone setting out, we should first understand the performance of stone, such as different stone varieties, matching and coordination of colors and patterns, physical and mechanical properties and processing properties of stone, etc; Secondly, have some knowledge and experience in machining technology.
Although stone is a brittle material, there are many processes and steps in its processing process that are very similar to mechanical processing. Stone processing is basically the same as material preparation, rough turning, fine-tuning, polishing, and finished products of mechanical processing, but the equipment and tools used are different.
Thirdly, as a technician of stone setting out, he should also have basic knowledge of industrial and civil architecture, and be able to understand architectural construction drawings, structural construction drawings, and even infrastructure drawings such as plumbing installation, elevation, and side; Finally, we should also understand the basic methods of stone installation, such as dry hanging or wet pasting, and the cooperation relationship between stone decoration and other materials.
General steps of stone setting out
1. Visual inspection:
That is, check the building entity on-site in order to determine which dimensions to measure, what is the benchmark, what places to measure in detail, what are the important dimensions that must be guaranteed, the surrounding decorative materials and performance, the civil structure of the building, etc. for example, the setting out of a rotating staircase shall be determined through on-site observation:
① Position of circle center
② Start and end coordinates of arc
③ Projection radius
④ Projected arc length
⑤ Elevation of each section
⑥ Design scheme and platform of the overall trend of the spiral ladder
⑦ Closure of starting point, ending point, and transition point
⑧ Treatment of special structure of the stair
⑨ Its dependence on peripheral ornaments and so on
2. Determine the benchmark.
The datum of setting out is very important. It is the reference point (line) for on-site measurement of various dimensions and geometric checking and drawing in the next step. In principle, first find a space that can take into account more dimensions as much as possible, pop up a datum line, and then get other datum lines by making vertical lines. However, due to the confusion of the general construction site, the snapping of the line is not only limited by the site but also limited by time.
For architectural decoration, the accuracy requirement is not too strict, so it is faster and more convenient to use the column surface, wall surface, beam or door and window, horizontal plane, etc. of civil engineering as the approximate benchmark, especially when the civil engineering is more complex or multi-story construction is measured, it is more convenient to use the column as the benchmark and the measurement is more accurate.
If there is no ideal civil wall or column as the benchmark, generally draw lines at appropriate places, and then draw lines or place flat objects on the ground as the benchmark. The requirements are not too strict. Therefore, it is faster and more convenient to use the column surface, wall surface, beam or door and window, horizontal plane, etc. of civil engineering as the approximate benchmark. Especially when civil engineering is more complex or multi-story construction is measured, it is more convenient to use the column as the benchmark and the measurement is more accurate.
3. The measurement should be targeted.
First, it should be determined according to the graphic size. Generally, the horizontal and vertical dimensions shall be measured according to the determined datum, and the coordinate tracing method shall be used for measurement. Then measure the key dimensions, and be able to draw graphics and processing drawings according to the measured dimensions, such as key data of length, width, and height.
Second, we should consider the process characteristics of stone processing, carry out necessary splitting and parts, and reach a consensus with customers.
During site setting out, all the drawings are sketches, which are inconvenient to write and require fast speed. If you don’t pay attention, there will be a phenomenon that a certain size doesn’t know which place to refer to, or the size in the horizontal direction is confused with that in the vertical direction. It is therefore recommended that:
A. The text direction shall be marked according to the drawing standard format.
B. When the size is too large, use local magnification to draw, and do not squeeze many sizes together.
C. Generally, it is faster and more convenient to record in the form of a plan.
5. Control dimensional error.
When measuring, it is better to measure more dimensions than one less dimension. It seems that for parallel dimensions, the distance between both ends should be measured to determine the error of civil engineering. We should be aware of the error of civil engineering. Pay attention to the relationship between the overall size and the size of each section. Generally, the error shall not exceed 20rran and shall be rechecked on-site to avoid contradiction between the measurement results and ensure the accuracy of the measurement.
6. Keep the margin of adaptation.
Combined with various decoration methods, an appropriate size allowance shall be reserved on the basis of measurement; According to the size of civil engineering error, a certain adjustment allowance shall be reserved for the stone part; an Appropriate trimming allowance shall be reserved according to the type of contact.
After site setting out, even if there is no time to draw formal drawings, at least a neat overall drawing shall be drawn to verify the accuracy of all measured dimensions to avoid missing dimensions or clerical errors. Otherwise, it is impossible to draw and process after leaving the site.
In short, stone setting out is a highly technical work, which requires a wide range of knowledge and spatial imagination. At the same time, generally speaking, setting out is the pre-sales service for orders. It needs to actively communicate with customers, obtain customers’ trust and support, and understand their intentions, so as to achieve ideal results and win customers. This requires constant exploration and summary in work practice.
Exquisite stone setting out technology can determine the perfect display of stone effect in the later stage, and it needs a group of skilled stone setting out technicians. Cultivating and excavating such talents is an important part of stone enterprises. Well, this article will be written here first. For more exchange of stone setting out technology, please pay attention to my email firstname.lastname@example.org, let’s discuss more interesting stone lofting techniques.