Stone is one of the basic materials commonly used in garden engineering. With the continuous development of the garden industry, the types of natural stone and processed stone are becoming more and more abundant, and the application of stone is becoming more and more extensive. In this article, we will elaborate on the landscape characteristics and application of stone.
● Stone materials shall be selected according to the environment of landscape engineering
In some environments close to industrial areas and high pollution, stones with strong pollution and corrosion resistance must be considered first for stones involved in garden engineering. Generally, it is advisable to select the stones processed by magmatic rock, such as various granite, diabase, and other stones. It is not advisable to select marble, dolomite, limestone, and other stones with low corrosion resistance, low compressive strength, and poor wear resistance, which are mainly composed of calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate, so as to make the beauty of their stones permanent and firm. In some natural scenic spots and areas with beautiful environments, natural and beautiful stones can be considered first.
● Landscape application of stone
The application of natural stone has a long history. The application fields are expanded from the foundation, steps, railings, stone tables, sculptures, stone tablets, floors, and walls to wall decorative panels, sanitary ware, combined new floor decorative stones, etc. the use of high-grade stones in buildings can improve the grade of buildings.
Stone has been used in landscape for a long time. Natural stone is an ancient building material, which has the characteristics of high strength, good decoration, high durability, and wide sources. With the progress of modern mining and processing technology, stone has been widely used in the modern landscape.
Whether it is the stone steps of the courtyard in Roman times or the stone square in modern gardens, whether it is the rockery, revetment in oriental classical gardens, or the stone in Japanese courtyards, stone, an ancient building material, has always occupied a place in the history of human gardens, and has more vitality through the progress of processing technology.
● Problems of stone in modern landscape pavement
With the exchange of eastern and Western cultures, western design concepts have had a great impact on China’s landscape pavement design. The abuse of rough stone has blurred our living space and lifestyle, resulting in the phenomenon of “one side of a thousand cities” in China’s landscape pavement.
The problems of stone in modern landscape pavement in China mainly include:
1. Blind imitation of existing cases, landscape recognition is not high. For the existing cases, both decision-makers and owners pay attention to “example” and do not pay attention to innovation. When they see the good effect of others using stone, they copy mechanically. Facing the same stone landscape pavement, it is difficult for us to identify where we are. The development of the information age has accelerated the speed of imitation. In addition, the reference of excellent cases and the application of new technologies have further aggravated the “landscape characteristic crisis”.
2. Foolish pursuit of “culture” and blind worship of artistry. With the proposal of “garden city” and “cultural city”, people begin to pay attention to the urban style and the artistry of ground pavement. While strengthening the application of “cultural” elements, they ignore the functionality of stone pavement, especially in road pavement, stone has brought a lot of negative effects to people’s life.
3. Excessively follow the “grade”, and the pavement form is too monotonous. While pursuing high positioning, landscape pavement should consider regional culture, landscape characteristics, and economic level. Stone is not suitable for every landscape pavement. We should explore the essence of stone and find the peace and happiness of the city itself.
● The form of stone in landscape pavement design
With the gradual improvement of construction technology and the development of landscape pavement design concept, there are many combination forms of stone in landscape pavement, such as streamline arrangement, contrast arch arrangement, linear (grid) joint arrangement, parallel arrangement, concentric circle arrangement, fan arrangement, staggered joint arrangement, etc.
These forms show the sequence, landmark, regional, and boundary of landscape space to a large extent, but tracing the embryonic form of its combination mode is mainly composed of gradual change, repetition, and emission.
Fully understanding these three basic forms, innovating, and applying them will solve the problems of a single form in landscape pavement design in China, and promote the development of stone in landscape design.
1. Gradient form of stone
The gradual change form of stone is based on the principle of plane composition, which is combined gradually and regularly with the basic shape or basic bone of stone as the unit, giving people the beauty of nature, rhythm, and rhythm, and showing a sense of harmonious order.
The gradual change forms of stone include the gradual change of stone shape and size, the gradual change of stone surface texture and texture, the gradual change of stone color itself, the gradual change of stone pavement direction, etc. The direction gradient of stone is from one point to another. According to the principle of perspective and direction, using the contour of stone, the far-reaching sense of landscape space is expressed incisively and vividly, reflecting the axial and centripetal nature of landscape pavement and landscape space.
2. Repeated form of stone
The repeated form of stone refers to the continuous and repeated arrangement by using the same element or the same bone of stone, giving people the continuity of landscape pavement. Such a stone arrangement has a neat and unified effect, a harmonious and orderly picture, and repeated images will enhance people’s memory of the landscape pavement and enhance people’s recognition of the landscape.
The repeated stone basic image is the basic unit of landscape pavement and the necessary condition for the formation of the whole landscape pavement and landscape space. It forms changeable composition graphics according to a certain direction and combined with the positive and negative alternation of graphics; Make life comfortable, romantic, and warm into the landscape pavement, and improve people’s perception of landscape pavement and landscape space.
3. Emission form of stone
In fact, the emission form of stone is a special repetition and gradual change of stone. It is a figure formed by the basic shape of stone around a central point and shooting around. Its characteristic is that whether it is launched from the center to the four sides or from the four sides to the center, it will form a strong visual effect, with guidance and a sense of rhythm full of graphics.
The emission forms of stone materials include concentric emission, centrifugal emission, centripetal emission, and multicentric emission. The concentric emission form of stone gradually expands from one point to the four sides. There are two modes: concentric circle and concentric rectangle. It guides people’s visual focus through gradual change. It is a common expression in landscape pavement. Such a sense of form is very strong and attractive, which not only improves the sense of domain and penetration of landscape pavement but also reflects the humanization of landscape pavement and promotes the mutual penetration and integration of stone and the surrounding environment.
4. Other forms of stone combination
In addition to the above forms, there are also integrated and personalized forms of stone in landscape pavement. The integrated form of stone refers to the pattern design of the whole scene as a whole when paving a large area of stone landscape. Its purpose is to pursue the overall unified effect of landscape pavement and highlight the theme of pavement, so as to strengthen people’s impression.
The personalized design of stone refers to the use of symbolism and other means, with the help of the characteristics of stone, to strengthen the regional culture and local flavor here, make people have memories and associations psychologically and visually by using the design method of focus and strengthen the recognition and intimacy of landscape pavement and even the whole landscape space.
In today’s era of continuous emergence of new materials, we should not only pay attention to the development of new materials and technologies and the problems existing in the application of materials but also constantly tap the characteristics of local materials and explore their deep-seated performance. Through the discussion on the gradual change, repetition, emission, and other forms of stone, this paper reveals the formal aesthetics of stone in landscape pavement. These aesthetic characteristics are also in line with other local materials, so as to strengthen the excavation of the expressiveness of local materials and promote the formation of the thought of “material driven design”. Well, this article is written here. I look forward to your email firstname.lastname@example.org To share more interesting stories.