How to construct stone materials for retaining walls and landscape walls?

Landscape wall, which has the functions of separating space, organizing tour guides, setting off the scenery, decorating and beautifying, shielding sight, and reflecting culture, is an important factor in the composition of landscape space. While meeting the function, the combination with art can often become a major memory point in the design, which needs to be focused on by the designer.

As an important constituent element of the courtyard, the treatment of the landscape wall should not only be beautiful but also have enough design ideas and wonderful artistic creativity, to be innovative and play the role of the finishing touch in the courtyard landscape. The whole courtyard is beautiful because of the landscape wall, and the people in the courtyard are happy because of the landscape wall.

1. Surveying and setting out:

Before the stone paving construction of the landscape wall and retaining wall, the survey and setting out shall be carried out along the centerline of the landscape wall according to the designed plane elevation. A control point shall be set every 5 ~ 10m. The field survey and setting out must be carried out according to the design layout drawing or construction detail drawing, and the centerline, horizontal elevation line, and grid line shall be snapped.

2. Base leveling:

The base shall be leveled according to the measured position and elevation. If the base is defective, it shall be leveled with cement mortar or crushed stone concrete.

3. Stone trial assembly and selection:

The stones used in the project shall be numbered and packaged after the finished products are processed in the processing plant according to the layout drawing. After the stones are unpacked, they shall be checked one by one, all broken, missing edges and corners shall be selected and stacked separately, and the processing plant shall be notified to reprocess. The on-site pre-assembly shall be carried out based on the plate selection inspection. Through the pre-assembly, the upper, lower, left and right colors and patterns are more consistent, the texture is smooth, and the joints are closely consistent. The pre-assembled stones shall be numbered in two directions, and then stacked vertically for use.

4. Facade stone pasting:

1) Small size block:

When the base course is wet, brush a layer of 108 glue plain cement slurry first, and primer with brushing; The bottom ash shall be made of 1:3 cement mortar with a thickness of about 12mm. It shall be operated two times, the first time about 5mm and the second time about 7mm. After the bottom ash is compacted and leveled, the surface of the bottom ash shall be roughened. After the base ash is solidified, snap the line in blocks, then smear the wetted blocks with plain cement slurry with a thickness of 2 ~ 3mm, mix 108 glue with a water weight of 20% for inlaying, tap with a wooden hammer, and level and straighten with a guiding rule.

2) Large size block:

When the side length is more than 40mm and the inlay height is more than 1m, the installation method shall be adopted.

a. Drilling and grooving:

Before installation, drill holes in the decorative panel with a bench drill according to the design requirements. Nail the wooden frame in advance so that the drill bit is straight to the upper-end face of the plate, drill holes on the upper and lower surfaces of each plate, drill holes at 1 / 4 from both ends of the plate width, drill two holes on each surface, the hole diameter is 5mm, the depth is 12mm, and the hole position is 8mm from the back of the stone plate.

b. Threading steel wire or galvanized lead wire:

Cut the prepared copper wire or galvanized lead wire for about 20cm, stick epoxy resin with a wooden wedge at one end to fix the copper wire or galvanized lead wire mold into the hole firmly, and bend the copper wire or galvanized lead wire along the whole groove and lie in the groove at the other end, so that there is no copper wire or galvanized lead wire protruding at the upper and lower end faces of the polished grid stone slab, to make the joint with the adjacent stone slab tight.

c. Binding reinforcement mesh:

Firstly, remove the embedded reinforcement on the wall and clean the part where the stone is embedded on the wall. Bind a vertical layer first φ 6 reinforcement, and bend the bound vertical reinforcement on the wall with embedded reinforcement. The transverse reinforcement is used for binding polished granite plates. If the plate height is 60cm, the first transverse reinforcement shall be firmly bound with the main reinforcement at 10cm above the ground, which is used to bind the lower opening of the first layer of the plate to fix copper wire or galvanized aluminum wire. The second horizontal bar is bound at 7 ~ 8cm on the 50cm horizontal line, 2 ~ 3cm lower than the upper opening of the stone slab, which is used to bind the copper wire or galvanized lead wire fixed at the upper opening of the first layer of stone slab, and then bind a horizontal bar every 60cm upward.

d. Snap line:

First, find out the vertical of the polished granite wall from top to bottom with a large line pendant. The thickness of the large polished granite plate, the gap of pouring mortar, and the size of reinforcement mesh shall be considered. Generally, the thickness between the outer skin of polished granite and the structural surface shall be 5 ~ 7cm. After finding out the vertical, snap the outline dimension line of stone along the wall on the ground. This line is the installation datum line of the first layer of stone. The numbered marble or prefabricated terrazzo slab shall draw the positioning line on the snapped datum line, and a 1mm gap shall be reserved for each block.

e. Installation of stone:

Take the slate according to the position, straighten the copper wire or galvanized lead wire, put the slate in place, tilt the upper mouth of the slate outward, extend your right hand into the back of the slate, and bind the copper wire or galvanized lead wire at the lower mouth of the slate to the transverse reinforcement. The binding shall not be too tight, but allowance can be reserved. As long as the copper wire or galvanized lead wire and transverse reinforcement are fastened, the stone slab can be erected, the marble or prefabricated terrazzo, polished granite slab upper mouth copper wire or galvanized lead wire can be bound, and the wooden wedge shall be used to cushion it. The gap between the block and the base course is generally 30 ~ 50mm.

Check and adjust the wooden wedge with the guiding rule plate, and then fasten the copper wire or galvanized lead wire to the other party in turn. The cylindrical surface can be installed clockwise, generally starting from the front. After the installation of the first floor, use the guiding rule plate to make it vertical, the level ruler to make it flat, and the square ruler to make the internal and external corners square. After finding the vertical, flat, and square, use a bowl to prepare the plaster of Paris, paste the plaster in the shape of porridge between the top and bottom of marble or prefabricated terrazzo, and polished granite slab, so that the two layers of stone slab form a whole. Plaster can also be pasted at the wooden wedge, and then use the guiding rule board to check whether there is deformation. Grouting can be carried out after the plaster is hardened.

f. Grouting:

Put the cement mortar with the mix ratio of 1:2.5 into a half bucket, add water to make porridge, scoop the slurry with an iron dustpan and pour it slowly. Be careful not to touch the marble or prefabricated terrazzo slab. While pouring, gently tap the slab surface with a rubber hammer to exhaust the poured mortar.

The pouring height of the first layer is 15cm, which shall not exceed 1 / 3 of the stone slab height; The first layer of grouting is very important. Since it is necessary to anchor the copper wire at the lower opening of the stone slab and fix the stone slab, it is necessary to operate gently to prevent collision and fierce grouting. If the stone slab moves out wrongly, it shall be removed and reinstalled immediately.

After the first grouting of 15cm, stop for 1 ~ 2H and wait for the initial setting of the mortar. At this time, check whether there is movement, and then carry out the second layer of grouting. The grouting height is generally 20 ~ 30cm. Continue the grouting after the initial setting. The third layer shall be grouted until it is 5 ~ 10cm lower than the upper opening of the plate.

5. Topping stone:

Clean the stone, pave the top mortar after the facade stone mortar reaches a certain strength, with the mortar strength of 1:3 cement mortar, compact the paved mortar and make it 3mm higher than the facade stone and 100 ~ 300mm wider than the surface stone. Then sprinkle the plain cement slurry, put the top stone, and gently knock out the gas under the stone with a rubber hammer to make it paste tightly.

6. Joint wiping:

After the installation of all stone slabs, remove all traces of residual slurry, wipe them with a linen cloth, prepare the color slurry for caulking according to the color of stone slabs, and wipe them while embedding to make the joints dense, uniform, clean and consistent in color.

7. Quality standard:

1) The paving must be flat and stable.

2) Consistent and smooth texture.

3) Appearance identification: there shall be no warping, and the filling joint shall be full.

4). measured items

There are many elements in the design of the landscape wall. What is needed is to meet the scene. Modern design techniques are used to combine landscape elements to show the interest of traditional culture, which is not only in line with the aesthetics of modern people but also without losing the solemn and elegant temperament. Wall and scene, let you see enough. Well, that’s all for this article.

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